Itaconic acid is an important mammalian metabolite which mediates the crosstalk between infection, immunity and metabolism. It is produced by immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1)-coded enzyme which catalyzes cis-aconitic acid in activated macrophages under conditions of infection or pro-inflammation1,2,3,4.
Why is it named Itaconic Acid?
Itaconic acid has demonstrated its anti-inflammatory functions in vitro and in vivo through the mechanisms which have been proposed in several investigations14,15,16,17,18. ROS play an important role in the anti-inflammatory mechanism of itaconic acid15,16, in which ROS has been shown to be generated from the fatty acid oxidation mediated by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)11,16,19,20. Endogenous itaconic acid may cause elimination of mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation in LPS-activated murine macrophage lineage21.
What is Itaconic Acid made of?
1. There are two methods: chemical synthesis method and Industrial fermentation method. Most manufacturers use Industrial fermentation method to produce. The fermentation method mainly uses starch, sucrose, molasses, sawdust, straw and other agricultural and sideline products as raw materials, sugar as the culture medium, nitrogen source and inorganic salts, and Aspergillus terreus as the strain to ferment for two days, filter, concentrate, decolorize, crystallize, and dry.
2. Heat the concentrated citric acid aqueous solution to 280~300 ℃ under reduced pressure (4.0~5.3kPa), decompose to generate Itaconic anhydride and Itaconic acid, and then separate and extract Itaconic acid from them.
3. Synthesized from Propargyl chloride, carbon monoxide, carboxyl nickel and water
What is Itaconic Acid used for?
1. It can be made into a series of products such as paper and plastic film with deodorization function.
2. Itaconic acid can be copolymerized with styrene and butadiene to make S.B.R latex, which can be used for paper coating to make paper strong and bright in printing patterns; Used for metal and concrete coatings, easy to stain and unaffected by natural conditions; Used as a paint additive to improve paint quality; It can make Synthetic fiber carpet durable when used for carpet sizing.
3. Itaconic acid is polymerized with acrylic acid or methacrylic acid or its ester to form a resin, which can be used for surface coating and emulsion paint. As a leather coating, it can increase the plasticity of leather; Used as a coating for automobiles, electrical appliances, and cold storage, it has advantages such as strong adhesion, beautiful color, and resistance to harsh weather conditions; Used as an electrophoretic coating with excellent adhesion; Adding multivalent metal oxides can make dental adhesives with good extrusion performance, strong adhesion, and good physiological adaptability; Adding chloroalkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride can make water-soluble coatings, which can be used as food packaging materials to reduce bacterial contamination on the surface of packaging materials.
4. Esters made of Itaconic acid can be used in paints, weak acid ion exchange resins, lubricating oil additives, adhesives and plasticizers, powder compression plastics and sealants.
5. Itaconic acid can be used as medicine, cosmetic reagent, lubricant, thickener, herbicide and to improve the performance of silk and wool fabrics.
6. Itaconic acid is the raw material for the production of Citraconic acid, Zhongkang acid, Itaconic anhydride, etc.